Objectives and development for Agora Laboratory and Class:
We believe that revising systematically a basic concept like the structure of light/ light diffraction, as described in the previous sections, leads to very important theoretical and application results. However, the immediate inclusion of the Agora Laboratory and Class in the University seems to us very improbable. The inclusion of research on a structure of light that is outside of the frame of electromagnetism/ quantum mechanics, in a standard research institution seems also improbable. Because of this situation we set for developing an independent laboratory, the Agora Laboratory, near a large and important University (i.e. UIUC), with the following three objectives:
- Experimenting the class described in the documents from this Web page, The Agora Laboratory and Class, for students from the University.
- Developing/ extending ideas generated in the Agora Laboratory and Class. Particularly, extending the ideas from the new structure of a light beam to X-rays, and finding the implications for the electric charge and electric current. The work on the X-rays should also involve the following aspects.
A review of the Impulse Approximation (IA) for calculating Compton photon scattering probabilities by bound electrons reveals a paucity of measured, double-differential cross-section (DDCS) data with respect to angle and energy, especially for scattered photon with energies near that of the incident photon energy E. The K-shell DDCSs derived from IA display undesirable discontinuities and poorly match available experimental continuous DDCSs between the Compton energy and E. Similar discrepancies with respect to experiment are displayed by the S-matrix results. Because numerical evaluation of IA is so practical and straightforward, we have replaced the electron momentum in the energy-momentum conservation with an ad hoc concept of partial electron momentum to show the feasibility of reducing such discrepancies. In the proposed ad hoc DDCS, called here the blended impulse approximation (BIA), this replacement is combined with the incoherent approximation. BIA removes the undesirable discontinuities in the DDCS, indicates better agreement with existing experimental data, and provides a general DDCS form for incorporating evaluated experimental data. We suggest that the S-matrix energy-momentum conservation could also use the ad hoc concept of partial electron momentum, for benefits similar to the IA case. Further development of BIA requires a measurement of a comprehensive set of DDCSs to help finding an adequate set of shell-dependent expressions for the partial electron momentum. In conclusion we suggest that the concept of partial electron momentum may have a direct physical significance for the photon: the Compton interaction is such that the photon sees only a part of the electron momentum. Alternatively, it might indicate the need for a reviewed mechanism of the Compton effect, different for free and bound electrons.
- Developing applications of radiation. One direction concerns the new structure of a light and X-ray beam and generally the ideas developed at points 1) and 2) above. It includes experimenting on the Compton effect and measuring the double differential cross section for this effect. The other direction concerns the study of radiation effect on living matter, including the application of Monte Carlo and Sn methods for radiation transport in tissues.
The first step for us is accomplishing the first objective together with the application of Monte Carlo and Sn methods for radiation transport in tissues. As the experience with this class grows and as the class gets some success then accomplishing the objectives 2) and 3) becomes possible.